Overview Of The Book

The Quran claims to be the book with the explanation of all things (تِبْيَانًا لِّكُلِّ شَيْءٍ). Muslims have historically been divided into three groups when interpreting this verse. The majority of exegetes believe that the meaning of “تِبْيَانًا لِّكُلِّ شَيْءٍ” is not the explanation of everything but what is necessary for the guidance of Man. The second group does not consider the expression of the Quran to be definite but a general reference to the subject. This group believes that “لِّكُلِّ شَيْءٍ” does not mean everything, but refers to the breadth of the Quran and the various topics it discusses. The third group considers the expression of the Quran to be comprehensive, definite, and explicit, without the need for further justification or addendum. According to this group, “تِبْيَانًا لِّكُلِّ شَيْءٍ” means the illuminator of everything, the entire universe.

Those who consider the Qur’an as merely a book of guidance ultimately believe that it is a set of executive rules and arbitrations. For these people, the question of the correctness of the Quran’s arbitrations is irrelevant. Those Muslims who adhere to this belief, like followers of other religions, are forced to submit to the religion of their ancestors. Their understanding of religion is limited to the practice of the arbitrations that have been passed down to them from the so-called “authority of religion”. For these people, the existence of a book such as the Quran is beside the point, let alone its correctness. Most Muslims are part of this group.

The second group considers personal and idiosyncratic interpretations of this book permissible. Several Muslim intellectuals defend this approach to Quranic exegesis, given that the blind and dogmatic pursuit of the first group has caused many social problems for Muslims. Contrary to popular belief, this approach has deconsecrated the Quran as the word of God, and has created a breeding ground for individual opinions, intellectual divisions, and conflict among its followers.

Although the third group’s approach is consistent with the expression of the Quran and is devoid of all the drawbacks of the previous two groups, it is a huge claim, and places a heavy burden on the Quran. Most Muslims find this claim beyond the scope of this book. On the other hand, because this claim has not been proven, Muslims have not received it well so far.

Let’s examine this issue from the Quran’s viewpoint. Less than eight percent of the verses of the Quran are religious arbitrations (Ahkam, احکام), and the rest comprises the “Bayyanat بینات” expressions of the realities of the universe. The Qur’an has repeatedly expressed its disdain for those who follow their ancestral religion blindly. According to the Quran, those who follow the Quran, follow the realities of the universe, and those who follow the religion of their fathers, follow superstition. Moreover, the Qur’an has repeatedly emphasized that it is the word of God, immutable, sacred, and the purpose of its revelation is to bring peace and harmony among its followers. The first group’s approach serves to maintain social structure and the second group’s approach serves to change that structure. In fact, both are worldly approaches to a divine religion, both of which are invalid and unacceptable according to the Qur’an.

The Quran confirms the third approach in several verses. However, this approach is extremely ambitious, hence, no one has been successful in taking the necessary steps to achieve it. Where does the problem lie; is it with the expression of the Quran or the approach of Muslims to the Quran?

The book “Fundamentals of Quranology” examines this issue and clarifies that the problem does not lie within the expression of the Quran, and equipped with the correct method of interpretation, one can access the treasure trove of the truths depicted in the Quran. The expression of the Quran seems very complex, mysterious, contradictory, and confusing. This perception stems from the lack of a correct approach and method to the Quran. The book “Fundamentals of Quranology” opens a new window to this infinite horizon by presenting an alternative approach and method to Quranic exegesis. Even if one does not consider the Quran as the book with the expression of all the truths of the world of creation, yet “Fundamentals of Quranology” will give one a better understanding of what to expect from a book that makes such a claim and how these expectations can be fulfilled.

Chapter-by-Chapter Synopsis


The Quran, the holy book of Muslims, is quite unique and different from other divine books. The most important difference is the Quran’s claim to holding the correct “understanding” of all the truths of the universe, providing the correct “way” of life, and creating the necessary “motivation” for one to live accordingly. The Quran considers itself a transhistorical miracle and a guide for humanity throughout all ages. Given historical limitations, to what extent is this claim accurate? What method has the Quran utilized to overcome these limitations? No scholar of the Quran has ever provided a definite description of this method, which has consequently cast doubt on the validity of the Quran’s claim. The book, Koronology, is an all-encompassing effort to discover the correct method of the Quran’s method in describing all the truths of the universe.

Part One: Theoretical Basics of the Quran’s Expression

Chapter 1 – Simplifying the expression of complex and unknown facts

The Quran claims to be the expression of all the truths of the world of creation. Historical limitations make this an unlikely, if not impossible, claim. However, the Quran has its unique method of overcoming these limitations. This method is similar to the established method of modeling in experimental sciences. The first chapter describes the modeling method utilized in experimental sciences and how the Quran’s method is similar, yet unique in utilizing models to simplify its expression of the phenomena of our universe.

Chapter 2 – The method of the Qur’an in stating unknown facts

The Quran uses a clear and consistent method in its expression of the truths of the world of creation, one devoid of any ambiguity and confusion for its audience. The Quran’s verses can be divided into two groups: the “Muhkamat” (firm) and the “Mutashabihat” (analogue). The expression of the “Muhkamat” is clear and needless of further interpretation. However, the “Mutashabihat” are models that need further interpretation to be understood. The purpose of these verses, models as analogues of the phenomena of the world of creation, is to describe an incomprehensible phenomenon, given the science of the time of revelation. The second chapter explains how the “Mutashabihat” comprises a fair number of verses, an indication of the significance of revealing the unknowns of the universe from the Quran’s perspective. In addition to using models, the “Mutashabihat” use other methods, such as story-telling, to simplify the expression of the unknown truths.

Chapter 3 – The “Tafsil” (detail) of verses

“Tafsil” (detail) is the key issue in understanding the relationship between the “Muhkamat” and the “Mutashabihat”. The “Muhkamat”, or the “Om-ol-Ketab” (mother of the Book) as the Quran describes them, are the expression of the framework and general issues in the Quran. They are explicit and clear. The “Mutashabihat” are the “Tafsil” of the “Muhkamat”. “Tafsil” as in describing the details of the framework and a clear expression of the general issues. Since the “Tafsil” is beyond the scientific capacity of the people of the time of revelation, the Quran uses the “Mutashabihat”. In other words, the “Muhkamat” are the outer layer of the Quran’s expression, while the “Mutashabihat” are the details of what lies within the “Muhkamat”.

Chapter 4 – The immutable (“Muhkamat”)

The “Muhkamat” are the principles of the Quran and the principles of the world of creation. These principles describe the mechanisms of all the phenomena of our universe. Just as the principles of the universe are in harmony with each other, so are the “Muhkamat” of the Qur’an. The “Mutashabihat” in the Quran can be revealed through the principles described in the “Muhkamat”, and are valid because of them. The Quran is a hypertext, in which one can find no fault in it, nor can one find any contradiction between the “Muhkamat” and the “Mutashabihat”. The harmony and organic connection between these two groups of verses will allow for proper interpretation and prevent differences in perceptions since the interpretation of one verse cannot contradict another. The Quran is an integrated unit, and its disintegration into different parts distorts its entire being and the effectiveness of the book.

Chapter 5 – Characteristics of the science vanguards

Understanding the Quran is understanding the world of creation, and the reason why God refers to both “Kitab” in the Quran. In the words of the Quran, the “Rasikhun-fil-Ilm” (those firmly rooted in knowledge) are also those at the forefront of revealing the knowledge of the Quran. The advancements in science facilitate the interpretation of the “Mutashabihat,” and vice versa, the interpretation of the “Mutashabihat” advances science. Based on the functionality of the “Mutashabihat”, the “Mutashabihat” are part of all the books of the divine prophets. Yet, the accurate interpretation of the “Mutashabihat” is beyond the scientific ability of most people, which often results in misinterpretation and misunderstanding. Since the expression of the Quran remains unchanged and protected from all or any deviation, it can be the basis for a correct understanding of the “Mutashabihat” in other divine books.

Part Two: Pragmatic Basics of the Quran’s Expression

Chapter 1 – Wisdom (“Hikmat”)

The Quran aims to guide human beings to the “Sirat-al-Mustaghim” (the straight path). However, such a feat can only be achieved with knowledge of the world of creation, hence, the Quran is the expression of the world of creation. Does the Quran’s expression of the principles of the world of creation make it possible to extract a practical solution to achieve such a feat? The Quran has repeatedly referred to itself as the “Kitab” (Book) and “Hikmat” (Wisdom). The Quran is a book that clarifies the method of interpreting and utilizing the “Hikmat” (principles or wisdom) to derive a “Hukm” (a solution or rule). The “Kitab” and the “Hikmat” it presents are constant and consistent, but the “Hukm” one derives, depends on the prevailing circumstances.

Chapter 2 – “Hikmat” and Purpose

Can non-believers also use the Quran as a scientific reference? The answer is yes, except not entirely in the same way one would use a scientific reference. Scientific books are commonly used to understand the physical world and its phenomena, and usually have no direct connection to the life of its audience, however, the Quran is primarily revealed to serve as a roadmap for one’s life and destiny. The Quran is a book that, based on the governing laws of the universe, describes the effect human behavior has on their destiny in this world and the next. With the Quran as one’s guide, one can freely choose their destiny and consequently influence their society.

Chapter 3 – “Sirat-al-Mustaghim” (The straight path)

In the Quran, one repeatedly reads that the purpose of its revelation is to guide human beings to “Sirat-al-Mustaghim” (the straight path). “Sirat-al-Mustaghim” is the path of the world of creation, the one that creation was formed on and has, since formation, followed its evolutionary path until human beings appeared. The ultimate goal of one’s journey on this path is to create “Dar-al-Salam” (an ideal Islamic society). All members and components of the universe, including all animals, are forced on this path, and human beings are the only members that must voluntarily and consciously choose to follow this path. Humans’ free will has allowed them to deviate from “Sirat-al-Mustaghim” in various forms throughout history. The Quran refers to the path back to “Sirat-al-Mustaghim”, the “Sabil-Allah” (God’s path). This path (“Sabil-Allah”) is unique to each society since every one of them has deviated from “Sirat-al-Mustaghim” in various forms and their given circumstances. “Din” (religion), as described in the Quran, is the expression of the governing laws of “Sirat-al-Mustaghim” and “Shari’a” (commandment) is the expression of the rules of “Sabil-Allah”. Following on the “Sabil-Allah” is an intermediary goal while following on the “Sirat-al-Mustaghim” is the ultimate goal of all Muslims.

Chapter 4 – “Amr” (Command)

The Quran has thoroughly expressed the principles of its worldview through the “Muhkamat” and the “Mutashabihat”, which include the governing laws, social goals, and principles of worship, a collection that is immutable. In contrast, the collection of “Shari’a” (the commandments), while consistent in general, is subject to change given the prevailing social conditions of the time. Understanding these conditions falls under the disciplines of human sciences. Equipped with the data collected from the prevailing conditions and the Quran’s worldview, one can define the path back to “Sirat-al-Mustaghim”. The Quran refers to this method of returning to the “Sirat-al-Mustaghim” as “Amr” (command). Contrary to the “Hukm” (law, rule), which is specific to God, the “Amr” is achieved through “Shora” (council).

Chapter 5 – The Relationship between “Hikmat” and “Amr”

“Hukm” and “Amr” are similar in many respects, including the necessity to abide by both, but they also have noteworthy differences. “Hukm” (religious rulings) are exclusively of God’s command, however, the “Amr” (commandment) is the product of “Shora” and council. In other words, humans’ ultimate and immutable goal is defined by “Hukm,” while their intermediary and short-term goal which can be modified is determined by the “Shari’a”. “Shari’a” and “Amr” are defined by “Din” (the worldview), in the absence of a worldview they are purposeless and futile.


“Hudud-Allah” are the “Hukm”s or rulings concerned with family relations. These rulings are among the Shari’a rulings and can be modified. Since the Arabs at the time of revelation were resolute in preserving their ethnic traditions, specifically when it came to family traditions, the Quran coined these rulings as “Hudud-Allah” to emphasize the necessity to abide by them.

Chapter 6 – “Hikmat-al-Balighah” (Matured Wisdom)

The “Hikmat”s of the Quran fall into two categories: those of “Din” and those of “Shari’a”. The most basic and general “Hikmat”s of the “Din” are the “Hikmat”s of “Insan” (human wisdom) or “Balighah”. These “Hikmat”s are based on human nature (“Fitrat”) or the laws of creation and intended for all humans. The “Hikmat”s of “Iman” define the moral and behavioral characteristics of its followers. The “Hikmat” of “Insan” demonstrates correct human behavior, while the “Hikmat” of “Iman” represents the correct behavior of its followers, and the “Hikmat” of “Shari’a” defines the executive orders of the prevailing social conditions.

“Hikmat” of “Insan” or human rights is among the most sacred of wisdom in the sight of God, then comes the “Hikmat” of “Iman” and lastly stands the “Hikmat” of “Shari’a”. Throughout history, the guidance and calling of the prophets have revealed the importance and facilitated the gradual acceptance of the “Hikmat” of “Insan”, which has brought about the gradual evolution of human societies.

Chapter 7 – The laws governing the world of creation (“Ghadar” and “Sunnah”)

The laws governing the forces or the “Tasbih” (glorification) of the “Mala’eke” (angels) (“Qadar”) determine the mechanisms at work in nature. In addition to the “Mala’eke”, the “Ruh” (soul) also influences these mechanisms. The “Mala’eke”’s behavior is predetermined and perforce (regulated), in contrast, the “Ruh”’s conduct is unpredictable (unregulated). The “Ruh” gives humans free will and the ability to deviate from nature’s regulated system and cause corruption. “Sunnah-al-Allah” (the divine traditions), facilitated by the soul, prevents humans from excessive corruption, besides guiding its followers back towards the “Sirat-al-Mustaghim”. The function of the “Ruh” in humans and the divine traditions is beyond the natural regulations of the universe, yet, the function of the divine traditions in humans with regards to their society is regulated and immutable.

Part Three: Fundamentals of Faith in the Quran’s Expression

Chapter One – Miracles and Faith

“Iman” (Faith) is the free and conscious heartfelt belief in the existence of God, nature’s intentionality, and the Hereafter. Without powerful evidence (“Bayyanah”) or a miracle, such a belief cannot be achieved. The miracle of the Prophet of Islam is the Quran. The miracle of the Quran can only be revealed through knowledge of the “Mutashabihat”. Besides the Quran, belief in God can be obtained through knowledge of the divine traditions. A heartfelt belief requires freedom of choice, which requires motivation beyond earthly life.

Chapter Two – Righteous and Righteous Conduct

The righteous in the Quran comprises three categories: the universe (including God, ‌the angels, the soul, and all phenomena of our physical world), the laws governing the universe, ‌and lastly, human behavior, human speech, and human beliefs. However, the unrighteous only involves human behavior, human speech, and human beliefs. Those who believe are righteous and the non-believers are unrighteous. Righteous conduct is righteous for the sake of God, destined towards “Sirat-al-Mustaghim”, intended to establish “Dar-al-Salam” (the ideal Islamic society), and against corruption on earth. To engage in righteous conduct, one needs to renounce earthly gains in return for prosperity in the life beyond, besides understanding the righteous. Since deviating from “Sirat-al-Mustaghim” is always possible, the need to engage in righteous conduct never ends, even in an ideal Islamic society, which is encouraged through “Amr-bil-Ma’ruf” (enjoin that is right) and “Nahy-anil-Munkar” (forbid that is wrong).

Chapter Three – Perception and Experience

According to the Quran, belief requires knowledge, yet it also mentions in a few verses that belief, when developed through direct experience, is the basis of cognition. Direct cognitive experiences result in realization. The prophets had all understood and realized the heavens’ and the earth’s kingdom, and the world to come, through direct experience. Realization is achieved by direct stimulation of the limbic system (“Ghalb” heart). This is how God achieves perception of the truths in the believer’s heart, their faith, and righteous practice. In the same way, Satan can cause false perceptions, motives, and unrighteous practice. The heart of the believer is where they perceive the truth, and the heart of the infidel is where they perceive falsehood.

Chapter 4 – The method of legislating new rules from the Qur’an; Surah-al-Hamd

The Quran, in its own words, is a clean and wholesome tree whose roots (“Muhkamat”) are firm and its branches (the details “Tafsilat”) are in the heavens, yielding its fruits (the rules “Hukm”) regardless of circumstances. Using the methods described in this book, I present an interpretation of Surah-al-Hamd, where I show how one can extract the “Hikmat” of the Quran through its “Muhkamat”.


I present an innovative way of understanding the Quran in this book. One should rightfully question the method that I have described. I can offer three solid reasons as to why this method is valid and justified. First, it is evidence of the Quran’s ability to explain the universe and its phenomena. Second, it is evidence of the Quran’s ability to guide humans to an ideal society. And last, it is evidence of the Quran’s ability to present “Bayyana” (solid proof, miracle) for the validity of the Hereafter. So far, no other method has been successful in revealing the value and power of the Quran, in this way. Besides, the method presented in this book, unlike other methods, is trans-religion, in which one needs no prior belief to realize the validity of the Quran’s claim. Finally, I invite all scholars of the Quran to assess and examine the method presented in this book, to reveal the true power and value of the Quran.

This post is also available in: Persian